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Vermilion Parish Schools

Unit 3:   ELA Reading Essentials

Prekindergarten Unit 3

 

Oral Language Development Activities

Goal: Participates in conversational turn-taking with adults

 

Conversational turn-taking requires that two individuals engage in an oral exchange with a focused topic.  Each individual makes at least two contributions.

 

Sample Activities

 

1. The teacher models a conversation about a shared experience in the classroom using two hand puppets.  The puppets are talking to one another.  One puppet says, “Today we went to the ______.” The other puppet comments.  For example, the first puppet says, “Today we went to the fire station.”  The other puppet comments, “That sounds like fun.  Tell me more about it.”  The first puppet responds, “There were fire trucks.”  The other puppet questions, “What did they look like?”  The first puppet responds, “They were red.”  After modeling the conversational pattern, the teacher invites individual children to play the role of one of the puppets.  The teacher scaffolds responses to keep the conversation focused.

 

2. The teacher initiates individual conversations about each child’s life outside of school.  She begins with an open conversation starter, such as, “What did you do after school yesterday?” and then follows with questions or comments that use specific words from the child’s response.  For example, if the child responds, “played,” the teacher extends that response and initiates another turn for the child:  “You played after school yesterday.  What games did you play?”  After several turns, the teacher closes the conversation by saying, “Thank you for sharing what you did after school yesterday.”

 

3.  The teacher initiates a conversation about a book that has been read aloud repeatedly.  She first says, “I really liked that book.  What did you like about that book?” After children respond, she says, “Can you tell me more about ____?  Why did you like ____?  She uses words that the children have provided in their initial response in formulating her query so that the conversation is focused on the topic of the child’s choice.

 

Storybook Reading Activities

Goal:  Understand the concept of author and illustrator

 

In order to understand and produce written text, children must learn that there is meaning conveyed in both the words and the illustrations.  This is best accomplished by conversation about books read aloud, with the teacher directing attention to information provided in each area. 

 

Sample Activities

 

1.  The teacher reads aloud a book with rich illustrations or tells a story with a wordless picture book.  The teacher asks literal questions that can be answered through the illustrations (e.g., What color was the flower? Where did the mouse live?)  Then the teacher asks the children how they knew.  When they answer by pointing to the illustrations, the teacher tells the children that the illustrator is the person who draws the pictures in a book to help to tell the story.  She helps the children repeat the word illustrator and uses it repeatedly so that the children develop a firm concept of the term.

 

2. The teacher reads aloud repeatedly a book with a clear sequential story.  The teacher asks literal questions that can be answered only in the words of the text (e.g., What was the name of the chicken?  Why did he go to the store?)  Then the teacher asks the children how they knew.  When they answer by referring to their memory of the words, the teacher tells the children that the author is the person who writes the words in a book to help to tell the story.  She shows them where the words are on the page.  She helps the children repeat the word author, and uses it repeatedly so that the children develop a firm concept of the term.

 

3.  The teacher models the creation of a story on chart paper.  The teacher thinks aloud about a topic, then draws a simple picture, then labels it with a word or sentence or with letter-like forms.  She tells them that she is an author and an illustrator, because she told a story with pictures and words.  She tells them that they can pretend to be authors and illustrators.  The teacher folds a piece of paper in two.  She provides them a simple prompt (e.g., to make a book about themselves, to make a book about their family).  She tells them to pretend to draw the pictures and the words.  When they are done, she asks them to pretend to read their story.

 

Phonological Awareness Instruction

Goal: Clap words in sentences

 

Phonological awareness progresses from awareness of larger to smaller units in oral language.  The largest unit that children can learn to recognize is the word.  Children learn that words may be one-syllable or multi-syllabic.

 

Sample Activities

 

1. The teacher says a sentence with only one-syllable words (e.g., You are tall.  You are four. He is a nice friend.) The children repeat the sentence until they can repeat it easily.  Then the teacher tells the children that they are using words when they talk.  She repeats the sentence, saying “___ is a word, ____ is a word, and ____ is a word.”  She asks the children to say it again, and make a motion (e.g., clap, stand up, turn around) after each word.

 

2.  The teacher says a sentence with a combination of each child’s name and several one syllable words (e.g., Markel is smart; Ann is smart; Juan is smart).  She invites the children to repeat each sentence, clapping for each word. 

 

3.  The teacher takes one sentence from a read-aloud book.  The sentence contains some one-syllable words and some multisyllabic words.  She helps children to repeat the sentence and then to clap for each word.

 

 

Work With Letters

Goal: Say the alphabet

Children often learn to say the entire alphabet in order without the support of the song before they learn to identify individual letters.  This memory task is complex and will take many short repetitions.  The goal is not to match the individual letters with their names, but to memorize the names first so that it will be easier to learn which name corresponds to each letter shape.

 

Sample Activities

 

1.  The teacher engages the children to sing their alphabet song.  Then she tells them they can also say the alphabet.  She sweeps her hand under an alphabet strip while saying the first letters: (e.g., ABCDEFG, or the first set that corresponds to the cadence of the alphabet song the children are using).  She models clear articulation of the letter names.  She asks the children to repeat the letters with her.

 

2.  The teacher engages the children to sing their alphabet song.  Then she tells them they can also say the alphabet.  She sweeps her hand under an alphabet strip while saying the next set of letters: (e.g., HIJKLMNOP). She models clear articulation of the letter names.  She asks the children to repeat the letters with her.

 

3.  The teacher engages the children to sing their alphabet song.  Then she tells them they can also say the alphabet.  She sweeps her hand under an alphabet strip while saying the next set of letters: (e.g., QRSTUV). She models clear articulation of the letter names.  She asks the children to repeat the letters with her.

 

4.  The teacher engages the children to sing their alphabet song.  Then she tells them they can also say the alphabet.  She sweeps her hand under an alphabet strip while saying the next set of letters: (e.g., WXYZ). She models clear articulation of the letter names.  She asks the children to repeat the letters with her.

 

5. The teacher selects an alphabet book for one of the day’s read-alouds.  After reading the book and responding to the illustrations, the teacher engages the children in identifying the letters on each page.

 

Prekindergarten Unit 3 Assessment

 

The purpose of assessment in this unit is to plan further instruction.  This assessment can be completed during the course of regular instruction, with the teacher focusing on the responses of individual children, or it can be completed in an individual format, with the teacher interacting with each child individually.

 

Unit 3 Assessment

Oral Language Development:  Engages in conversational turn-taking

Given a conversational model,

  • The child cannot engage in a focused set of turn-taking.

  • The child can engage in one round of turn-taking.

  • The child can engage in two rounds of turn-taking.

  • The child can engage in three or more rounds of turn-taking.

Given an invitation to speak about daily life,

  • The child cannot engage in a focused set of turn-taking.

  • The child can engage in one round of turn-taking.

  • The child can engage in two rounds of turn-taking.

  • The child can engage in three or more rounds of turn-taking.

Given an invitation to speak about the content of a book,

  • The child cannot engage in a focused set of turn-taking.

  • The child can engage in one round of turn-taking.

  • The child can engage in two rounds of turn-taking.

  • The child can engage in three or more rounds of turn-taking.

Storybook Reading Activities: Understands the concept of author and illustrator

Given a story presented orally,

  • The child cannot recognize that the illustrator drew the pictures.

  • The child can recognize that the illustrator drew the pictures.

  • The child cannot recognize that the author wrote the words.

  • The child can recognize that the author wrote the words.

Given a piece of paper and a prompt,

  • The child cannot engage in drawing or pretend writing.

  • The child can engage in drawing.

  • The child can engage in both drawing and pretend writing.

  • The child can engage in drawing, pretend writing, and pretend reading of his/her own story.

Phonological Awareness Instruction: Clap words in sentences

Given a sentence with only one-syllable words,

  • The child cannot signal the number of words.

  • The child can signal the number of words.

Given a sentence composed of children’s names and one-syllable words,

  • The child cannot signal the number of words.

  • The child can signal the number of words.

Given a sentence composed of one-syllable and multi-syllabic words,

  • The child cannot signal the number of words.

  • The child can signal the number of words.

Work With Letters:  Say the alphabet

Given the prompting of the alphabet song and a model,

  • The child cannot say the first set of alphabet letters from memory: ABCDEFG.

  • The child can say the first set of alphabet letters from memory: ABCDEFG.

  • The child cannot say the second set of alphabet letters from memory: HIJKLMNOP.

  • The child can say the first set of alphabet letters from memory: HIJKLMNOP.

  • The child cannot say the third set of alphabet letters from memory: QRSTUV.

  • The child can say the third set of alphabet letters from memory: QRSTUV.

  • The child cannot say the third set of alphabet letters from memory: WXYZ.

  • The child can say the third set of alphabet letters from memory: WXYZ.

 

 

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